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Pernambuco: colonial history, beaches and sugar cane

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The state of Pernambuco is a small state in northeastern Brazil. The main city and the capital of the state is Recife, a large industrial city with a rich historical past. Pernambuco has a long and narrow shape, to the east it has a short coast, only 187 km long, washed by the Atlantic Ocean. While in the north it borders with the states of Paraíba and Ceará, in the south with the states of Alagoas and Bahia, and in the west with the state of Piauí. The Fernando de Noronha archipelago is also part of the state of Pernambuco, located in the Atlantic Ocean about 350 kilometers off the Brazilian coast. The population of Pernambuco is mainly composed of mulattos (55.2%), whites are 37.9%, blacks 6.3%, Asians and indigenous people 0.6%.

The coastal area is flat, rich in vegetation, with numerous estuaries of rivers and some sandy islands. While the landscape of the interior is very varied, there are highlands and mountains, such as the Chapada do Araripe and the Planalto de Borborema, which has an average altitude of 600 meters. In the latter is the highest mountain in the state, the Pico do Papagaio (1,260 m). More than half of the territory of Pernambuco is formed by Sertão, a characteristic region of the Northeast of Brazil with a semi-desert climate. The São Francisco River, which partly marks the border with the State of Bahia, is the largest river in Pernambuco.


From an economic point of view, Pernambuco has the second most important economy in the Brazilian Nordeste and the tenth of all the states of Brazil. The economic forces of the state are mainly agriculture and livestock. There are produced sugar cane, cassava, corn, cotton, coffee, citrus fruits, bananas, pineapples. Industry plays an important role. The food, textile, chemical and pharmaceutical, and wood industries are important. Tourism is another important activity for the economy of Pernambuco, the short coast is full of beaches and renowned holiday resorts such as Porto de Galinhas, Itamaracá and Pau Amarelo. Of great importance are also the historical memories of the region, such as the towns of Olinda, Itamaracá (Fort Orange) and Goiana.

The historic city of Olinda has been included among the UNESCO World Heritage Sites. Another UNESCO World Natural Heritage site is the Fernando de Noronha archipelago. Above all, these two places are the most beautiful tourist destinations in the state of Pernambuco.

The climate of Pernambuco.



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