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Ushguli, Svaneti, Georgia. Author and Copyright Marco Ramerini
Ushguli, Svaneti, Georgia. Author and Copyright Marco Ramerini

Georgia: Caucasus mountains and Black Sea

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Georgia (Sakartvelos Respublika) is a presidential republic located in the Caucasus, between the Black Sea and the Caspian Sea. This state born with the end of the Soviet Union is bordered by Russia to the north, Azerbaijan to the east, Armenia and Turkey to the south, while to the west it overlooks the Black Sea.

Georgia has Tbilisi as its capital, the other most important cities are Kutaisi, Rustavi, Batumi. The autonomous republics of Abkhazia and Ajara and the autonomous province of South Ossetia are also officially part of Georgian territory. However, both Abkhazia and South Ossetia are now under the occupation of Russia.


Located in the southern Caucasus, the Georgian territory is largely mountainous. To the north, the border with Russia is delimited by the Great Caucasus mountain range which in Georgian territory exceeds 5,000 meters. Mount Shkhara (5,201 meters) is the highest mountain in Georgia.

To the south of the Great Caucasus are the river valleys of the Kura which flows east and flows into the Caspian Sea. The Rioni river instead flows west, and flows into the Black Sea, forming the coastal plain of Colchis (Kolkhet’is Dablobi). The southern border of the country, with Turkey and Armenia, is delimited by the mountainous massif of the Lesser Caucasus, whose peaks do not exceed 3,500 meters.

Georgia’s economy is based on agriculture. In the country citrus, tea, grapes, fruit, tobacco, cereals are grown. The breeding of silkworms and livestock (cattle, sheep) are also important. The exploitation of forests and that of the subsoil (manganese, coal, oil, lead, zinc, iron, copper and lignite) are significant.

Industries have developed iron and steel, mechanical, chemical, petrochemical, wood and agricultural products processing. Tourism on the Black Sea coast is an important economic resource.

The climate of Georgia.

  • Area: 69,700 sqkm. (Arable 16%, Pastures 24%, Forests and Woodlands 33%, Uncultivated and Unproductive 27%)
  • Population: 4,600,000 (2005 data) (Georgian 72%, Russians 15%, Azeris 7%, Armenians 6%).
  • State Capital: Tbilisi.
  • Languages: Official language is Georgian. Abkhaz is the official language in Abkhazia. Russian is also spoken.
  • Religion: Orthodox Christian 82%, Muslim 10%, Armenian Christian 4%, Roman Catholics 1%.
  • Currency: Lari (GEL)
  • Time: UTC +4 hours.



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