Georgia (Sakartvelos Respublika) is a presidential republic located in the Caucasus, between the Black Sea and the Caspian Sea, bordered to the north by Russia, on the east by Azerbaijan, to the south with Armenia and Turkey, to the west is washed by the Black Sea, it has for capital Tbilisi, other major cities are Kutaisi, Rustavi, Batumi. The autonomous republics of Abkhazia and Ajara and the autonomous province of South Ossetia are also part of Georgian territory.
Located in the southern Caucasus, the Georgian territory is largely mountainous, towards north the border with Russia is delimited by the Greater Caucasus Mountain Range, that in Georgian territory exceeds 5,000 metres, Mount Shkhara (5,201 metres) is the highest Georgia’s mountain.
South of the Greater Caucasus are the valleys of Kura river, to the east, and Rioni, to the west, which flows into the Black Sea, forming the coastal plain of Colchis (Kolkhet’is Dablobi). The southern boundary of the country, with Turkey and Armenia, is bounded by the Lesser Caucasus Mountains, whose peaks not exceed 3,500 metres.
Economy of Georgia is based on agriculture (citrus fruits, tea, grapes, fruit, tobacco, cereals), are also important silk culture and livestock (cattle, sheep). Relevant exploitation of forests and the subsoil (manganese, coal, oil, lead, zinc, iron, copper and lignite). Among those industries are developed steel, mechanical, chemical, petrochemical, timber and processing of agricultural products. Tourism on the Black Sea coast, was an important economic resource, but internal conflicts and ethnic tensions have reduced its importance.
- Area: 69,700 sqkm. (Arable 16%, Pastures 24%, Forests and Woodlands 33%, Uncultivated and Unproductive 27%)
- Population: 4,600,000 (2005 data) (Georgian 72%, Russians 15%, Azeris 7%, Armenians 6%).
- State Capital: Tbilisi.
- Languages: Official language is Georgian. Abkhaz is the official language in Abkhazia. Russian is also spoken.
- Religion: Orthodox Christian 82%, Muslim 10%, Armenian Christian 4%, Roman Catholics 1%.
- Currency: Lari (GEL)
- Time: UTC +4 hours.