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Turkey: a land of ancient civilization

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Turkey (Türkiye Cumhuriyeti) is a state located in the Anatolian peninsula straddling Europe and Asia, the country is a parliamentary republic, of which a minimal part, the eastern section of Thrace is in Europe, the rest of the country is mainly in Asia. Turkey is bordered by Georgia and Armenia to the north-east, Iraq and Syria to the south, Iran to the east, Greece and Bulgaria to the north-west.

The largest and best known city in Turkey is Istanbul, the ancient Constantinople, originally known by the name of Byzantium. Istanbul is located along the Bosphorus Strait, between Asia and Europe. But the capital of the country is Ankara located in the center of the country, in the Anatolian plateau. Other important cities are also Izmir, Antalya, Adana, Adrianople, Bursa, Manisa, Alexandretta, Antioch, Konya, Erzurum.


Most of Turkey is mountainous. Its center is formed by the large Anatolian plateau, while the mountains rise up all around. To the south lie the Taurus Mountains, the largest mountain range in Turkey, which seperates the Mediterranean coast from Anatolia. Here are the mountains Bolkar Daglari with 3.585 meters and the Ala Daglari with 3.734 meters.


To the north of Anatolia towards the Black Sea lie the mountains of Pontus, reaching almost 4,000 meters by Kaçkar Dagi with 3,937 meters. At the eastern end of the country near the great Lake Van with 3,738 square kilometers, located at over 1,600 meters above sea level, there are other mountain ranges, which reach heights of 3,250 meters with the Bingöl Daglari.

The entire eastern region is a vast plateau with an average altitude of 1,800 meters. This area is characterized by the presence of important volcanic cones. The Süphan Dagi volcano with 4,434 m dominates the northern shores of the majestic Lake Van, but the most imposing volcano is the famous Mount Ararat with 5,165 m, the highest mountain in Turkey, located near the border with Iran and Armenia.

The main rivers of Turkey are the Kizilirmak, Sakarya and the Yesilirmak, which flow into the Black Sea, the Gediz and Büyük Menderes flow into the Aegean Sea and the Euphrates and Tigris flow into the Persian Gulf. Anatolia is rich in salt lakes: the largest ones are the lakes of Van, Tuz and Beysehir.

The climate of Turkey.

Official site of the Turkish government.

  • Area: 779,452 sq km
  • Population:72,600,000
  • State Capital: Ankara
  • Official Language: Turkish.
  • Religion: Islam.
  • Currency: New Turkish Lira (TRY)
  • Time Zone: Turkey belongs to the Eastern European Time Zone. Eastern European Standard Time (EET) is 2 hours ahead of Greenwich Mean Time from October to March UTC+2; Summer Daylight Saving Time is UTC+3.



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