China (Zhonghuá Rénmin Gònghéguó, Chinese People’s Republic) is the third largest country in the world after Russia and Canada, with approximately 20% of the inhabitants of the planet, it’s the most populated nation of the world. China is a socialist People’s Republic divided into 22 provinces (Anhui, Fujian, Gansu, Guangdong, Guizhou, Hainan, Hebei, Heilongjiang, Henan, Hubei, Hunan, Jiangsu, Jiangxi, Jilin, Liaoning, Qinghai, Shaanxi, Shandong, Shanxi, Sichuan, Yunnan, Zhejiang), 5 autonomous regions (Guangxi, Inner Mongolia, Ningxia, Xinjiang and Tibet), 4 municipalities (Beijing, Tianjin, Shanghai and Chongqing), and 2 special administrative regions (Hong Kong and Macao), China also controls some islands of the Spratly islands between Vietnam, Borneo and Philippines.
The country is washed to the east by the Yellow Sea and the East China Sea and to the south-east by the South China Sea, to the north it borders with Mongolia and Russia, to the north-east with North Korea, to the south with Vietnam, Laos, Burma and India, to the south-west with Bhutan, Nepal and India, to the west with Pakistan, Afghanistan and Tajikistan to the north-west with Kyrgyzstan and Kazakhstan.
Among the major cities of China, in addition to the capital Beijing, we find, Shanghai, the largest city in the country, Guangzhou, Chengdu, Chongqing, Harbin, Kunming, Tianjin, Wuhan, Lanzhou, Nanjing, Shenyang and Zhengzhou.
The Chinese territory is vast and varied geographically, more than 40% of the country consists of mountains and plateaus above the 2,000 meters.
Vast flat areas extend in the eastern part of the country, where flows the most important rivers in China and where is concentrated also the majority of the population, these areas represent approximately 12% of the area of the country.
The Chinese economy is among the economies that have had more rapid growth in recent years, China today is the greatest power in Asia and one of the major economic powers of the world.
The Chinese agriculture produces a large quantity of cereals (rice, wheat, corn, rye, barley, sorghum), potatoes, cassava, soybeans, tomatoes, sugar cane, tobacco, cotton, apples, pears, peaches, oranges, bananas, lemons, tea.
Among the products which China is the main producer in the world are: rice, wheat, cotton and silk natural. Important resources are breeding (cattle, pigs, sheep, goats, cultivation of silk), fisheries, China is the largest producer of fish in the world, and forests.
Fish and rice are the basis of Chinese food. Significant and various are the mineral resources, the richest areas are the southern Manchuria and the southern mountainous areas of the country.
Among the subsoil products which China is the first producer in the world are: coal, tin, antimony, tungsten, iron. Other important products are excerpts: oil, natural gas, uranium, hematite, aluminum, bauxite, magnesite, salt, talc, mica, quartz, molybdenum, mercury, manganese, lead, zinc, copper and silica. As for the industry, are very developed areas textiles, chemicals, iron, steel, petrochemical, metallurgical, mechanical and food. Tourism is another sector in expansion.
- Area: 9,596,960 sqkm. (Arable 10%, Pastures 41,7%, Forests and Woodlands 13,6%, Uncultivated and Unproductive 34,7%)
- Population: 1,313,973 000 (2006 data) (Han 91,9%, Zhuang 1,2%, Manchu 0,7%, Hui 0,7% Miao 0,6%, Uyghur 0,6%, Yi 0,6%, Tujia 0,4%, Mongols 0,4%, Tibetans 0,4%, Buyi 0,2%, and Koreans 0,1%). They recognized 56 distinct ethnic groups.
- State Capital: Beijing.
- Languages: The official language is Mandarin Chinese 65%. Other languages spoken are: Wu 7%, Min 5%, Yue 5%, Xiang 3%, Hakka 2%, Gan 1%.
- Religion: Buddhism 50%, Taoism 30%, Christian 4%, Muslim 2%.
- Corrency: Yuan (CNY)
- Time: UTC +8 hours.
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