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Java: the island of rice fields and volcanoes

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The island of Java (132,000 km²) is the most important island of Indonesia, it represents the cultural, economic and political center of the country. In fact, more than 60% of the Indonesian population resides here. There are large cities such as the capital Jakarta (Jakarta), the port of Surabaya, and such as Bandung, Solo (Surakarta), Yogyakarta and Semarang.

The island, which is not Indonesia’s largest island, is surrounded by the Java sea, and is located between the islands of Sumatra and Bali. While in the west the strait of the Sunda separates it from Sumatra, and in the east the strait of Bali divides it from the island of Bali and that of Madura in the north-east separates it from the island of Madura.


Java extends from west to east for over 1,000 km while its width never exceeds 200 km. The island is of volcanic origin and is dotted with a series of over 100 imposing volcanoes many of which are still active. Among these, Mount Merapi (2,930 meters) is the most active volcano in Indonesia.

In the western part of the island going from west to east we find Mount Gede (2,958 meters), Mount Pangrango (3,019 meters), Tangkuban Parahu (2,084 meters). There are also the Mount Papandayan (2,665 meters), Mount Kendang (2,608 meters), Monte Guntur (2,249 meters), Galunggung (2,168 meters) and Monte Cereme (3,078 meters).

In the central section of the island rise the volcanoes Slamet (3,432 meters), Dieng (2,565 meters), Sundoro (3,135 meters), Sumbing (3,371 meters), Ungaran (2,050 meters), Merbabu (3,145 meters), Merapi (2,930 meters) and Lawu (3,265 meters).

In the eastern part of the island there are Mount Wilis (2,563 meters), Kelut (1,731 meters), Arjuno-Welirang (3,339 meters), Semeru (3,676 meters), Mount Bromo (2,329 meters), Iyang-Argapura (3,088 meters), Raung (3,332 meters), Ijen (2,799 meters). The highest Java volcano is Mount Semeru (Gunung Semeru, 3,676 meters).

Java is an island rich in agriculture, the main agricultural resource is the cultivation of rice. Volcanoes contribute significantly to the immense fertility of the island. But the island is also highly developed from an industrial and infrastructure point of view and is the nerve center of the Indonesian economy.

Java also has strong tourist attractions. In addition to the magnificent landscape of rice fields and volcanoes, there are ancient Hindu and Buddhist temples. Some of world importance such as those of Prambanan and Borobodur, located a few kilometers away from each other in the vicinity of Yogyakarta in the central-southern part of the island.

The climate of Java.



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