Tajikistan (Jumhurii Tojikistan) is a presidential republic in Central Asia, bordering to the north with Kyrgyzstan, to the east with China, to the south with Afghanistan, to the west and north-west with Uzbekistan, the capital and principal cities of the country is Dushanbe. The state of Tajikistan also includes the autonomous province of Gorno-Badachšan.
The territory of Tajikistan is largely mountainous, there are two major chains that cross the country, to the north-west are the Trans-Alaj mountains, while to the south-east rises Pamir massif, these two chains have many glaciers and some peaks exceeding 7,000 meters.
The highest mountain of Tajikistan is Mount Ismail Samani (7,495 metres), previously known as Communism Peak. Also impressive are the Independence Peak (Lenin Peak, 7134 m), Korzhenevskaya Peak (7,105 meters) and the Avicenna Peak (6,974 metres). The few plains of the country are located along the courses of Syrdarja, which forms the Fergana Valley, Amudarja, Kafirnigan, Vahs and Pjandz rivers. Among the lakes Lake Kara-Kul (380 sq km) lies at 3,900 metres asl inside a meteoritic crater.
The economy of Tajikistan is linked to agriculture (cotton, wheat, rice, corn, barley, vegetables, potatoes and fruit (apples, grapes)), breeding (sheep, cattle and goats), and to the important resources of the subsoil (coal, oil, lead, zinc, natural gas, iron, antimony, gold and silver). The industry in the country has developed in the mining, chemical, textile areas, and processing of agricultural products and livestock.
- Area: 143,100 sqkm. (Arable 6%, Pastures 25%, Forests and Woodlands 4%, Uncultivated and Unproductive 65%)
- Population: 7,320,000 (2006 data) (Tajiks 80%, Uzbeks 15%, Russians 1%,, Kyrgyzs 1%).
- State Capital: Dushanbe.
- Languages: Tajik language is the only official state language. Spoken the Russian.
- Religion: Muslim 90% (Sunni), Orthodox Christian 2%.
- Currency: Somoni (TJS)
- Time: UTC +5 hours.