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Mongolia: plateaus, deserts and mountains

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Mongolia (Bügd Najramdah Mongol Ard Uls) is a republic of Central Asia. The country is landlocked and borders with Russia to the north and China to the south. The only major city is the capital Ulan-Bator.

The country is formed by a series of plateaus which have an average altitude of around 1,500 meters. To the west rise the mountain ranges of the Mongolian Altai, the Tannu Ola and the Hrebret Hangaj. While to the south extends the Gobi Desert.

The south of the country is characterized by lowlands and vast plains that are part of the Gobi Desert. While to the north there are vast mountain ranges that are arranged from east to west. Part of the mountains are located in the center of the country while other mountain ranges are arranged along the northern borders with Russia.


In the north-western part of Mongolia there are also some vast lake basins, to the north is Lake Hubsugul (2,620 sq km). The western part of the country is also called the region of lakes, here are the lakes Hara-Us, Hirgis and Ubsu (3,350 sq km), the latter being the largest lake in Mongolia.

In the Mongolian Altai, on the border with China and Russia, there is the highest mountain in Mongolia, the Khuitny Orgil (4,374 meters) which is part of the Tavan Bogd Uul massif. The main rivers in the country are Selenga and Kekulen.

Mongolia’s economy is based on agriculture (barley, wheat, oats, potatoes and vegetables) and breeding (sheep, goats, cattle and horses). There are also important mineral resources in the country. Coal, lignite, oil, gold, fluorite, uranium, salt are extracted. Industry (textile, food, tanning and paper) also has a certain importance.

The climate of Mongolia.

  • Area: 1,566,500 sqkm. (Arable 1%, Pastures 75%, Forests and Woodlands 9%, Uncultivated and Unproductive 15%)
  • Population: 2,950,000 (2007 data) (Mongol 89%, Kazakh 6%, Buriat 2%)
  • State Capital: Ulan-Bator.
  • Languages: The official language is Mongolian.
  • Religion: Buddhist 97%, Muslim 2%, Christian 1%.
  • Currency: Tögrög (MNT)
  • Time: UTC +8 hours.



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