Mexico (Estados Unidos Mexicanos) is a presidential federal republic composed of 31 states (Aguascalientes, Bassa California del Nord, Bassa California del Sud, Campeche, Chiapas, Chihuahua, Coahuila, Colima, Durango, Guanajuato, Guerrero, Hidalgo, Jalisco, México, Michoacán, Morelos, Nayarit, Nuevo León, Oaxaca, Puebla, Querétaro, Quintana Roo, San Luis Potosí, Sinaloa, Sonora, Tabasco, Tamaulipas, Tlaxcala, Veracruz, Yucatán and Zacatecas) and 1 Federal District, with Mexico City as state capital.
The country is washed by the Pacific Ocean to the west and by the Gulf of Mexico and Caribbean Sea to the east, bordered to the north with the United States of America, and to the south-east with Guatemala and Belize.
Are part of the Mexican state even the remote islands of Isla Guadalupe and Revillagigedo Islands in the Pacific Ocean. The state capital, Mexico City, is one of the most populous cities of the world, other major cities are Guadalajara, Monterrey, Ciudad Juarez, Tijuana, Toluca, Mexicali, Merida, Acapulco de Juárez, Mazatlán, Hermosillo, Chihuahua, Villahermosa, Puebla and Leon.
The Mexican coast that develop for a total of 9,000 km, are usually low and sandy with frequent lagoons along the Gulf of Mexico, only along the Pacific Ocean and in particular in the Baja California the coasts are high and rocky. The Mexican territory is crossed from north to south by two mountain ranges Sierra Madre Oriental (highest peak on Cerro San Rafael 3,700 metres) and Sierra Madre Occidental (highest peak on Cerro Gordo 3,340 metres), which are the continuation of the Rocky Mountains, they enclose the vast Mexican Plateau (Altiplanicie Mexicana, averages 1,100 meters in elevation in the north and 2,000 metres in the south), which covers more than half of the total area of the country.
The extreme north-western part of the country is occupied from the arid Sonora desert and the semi-arid peninsula of Baja California. In the center of the country is the volcanic chain of Volcanica Cordillera, which with its major volcanoes surrounding the plateaus where are Mexico City, Puebla and Toluca, here rise the highest mountains of the country: Pico de Orizaba or Citlaltépētl (5,636 meters) that is the highest mountain of Mexico, then follow the Popocatépetl (5,426 metres), Iztaccíhuatl (5,230 meters) and Nevado de Toluca (4,680 metres). Further south along the coast of the Pacific Ocean lies the Sierra Madre del Sur, whose highest peak is the Cerro Nube Flan (3,750 metres).
Facing the Caribbean Sea and the Gulf of Mexico is the Yucatán peninsula, flat with low coasts, often edged by lagoons, formed from limestone karst terrain, characterized by the absence of surface watercourses. The most important river in the country is the Rio Grande (3,034 km long), which marks for a long stretch the border with the United States of America. From the Central Plateau descend, toward the Pacific Ocean, the Río Grande de Santiago and the Rio Balsas. The largest Mexican lake is Lake Chapala, located in the Central Plateau.
In the first place in the economy of the country are the enormous mineral resources, Mexico is the first world producer of silver, and one of the first with regard to sulphur, between the energy sources are also important the resources of oil, natural gas and coal, then are extracted iron, fluorite, phosphates, uranium, gold, tin, copper, lead, zinc, antimony, graphite, manganese, tungsten and barite.
The farmland in the country produce cereals (maize, wheat, barley, sorghum and rice), legumes (dried beans, chickpeas), tomatoes, potatoes, cotton, coffee, tobacco, sugar cane, cocoa, fruits (oranges, tangerines, lemons, grapefruits , bananas, apples, pineapple), and the agave fourcroydes (which results in the henequén). Important breeding especially in cattle and pigs. Noteworthy are the significant forest resources and fisheries (crabs, sardines, anchovies, tuna, anchovies, oysters and mackerel).
From an industrial point of view Mexico is one of the most developed countries in Latin America, its industry is based on mechanical, electronic, textile, food, iron and steel, chemical and petrochemical sectors.
- Area: 1,972,547 sqkm. (Arable 12,6%, Pastures 38%, Forests and Woodlands 24,9%, Uncultivated and Unproductive 24,5%)
- Population: 108,700,000 (2007 data) (Mestizos (descendants of European and Amerindian) 60%-75%, Amerindian 12%-30%, European 12%-15%).
- State Capital: Mexico City.
- Language: Spanish
- Religion: Christian 95% (Roman Catholic 90%; Protestant 6%).
- Currency: Peso (MXN)
- Time: UTC -6 to -8 hours.