Armenia (Hayastani Hanrapetut’yun) is a presidential republic located in the Caucasus, between the Black Sea and the Caspian Sea, but without an outlet to the sea. The country is bordered by Turkey to the west, Georgia to the north, Azerbaijan to the east and southeast, Iran to the south and the Autonomous Republic of Nahicevan (Azerbaijan enclave).
The Armenian territory, mainly formed by a plateau, is largely mountainous, and has an average altitude of 1,800 meters. The Armenian plateau is surrounded by the Little Caucasus mountain ranges, where Mount Aragats (4,090 meters) is located, the highest mountain in Armenia.
A MOUNTAIN COUNTRY
The country is characterized by the presence of numerous mountain lakes, the largest of which is Lake Sevan, which is located at an altitude of 1,900 meters and has an area of approximately 1,244 square kilometers. Short are the streams which are tributaries of the Kura and Araks rivers. The latter marks the western border with Turkey and the southern border with Iran for a long stretch.
As for agriculture, the most fertile areas of the country are located in the irrigated areas along the Araks and in the plains of Jerevan and Gyumri, where cereals (wheat and barley), cotton, potatoes, beets, tobacco, fruit are grown, grapevine (famous brandy and other liqueurs).
The industrial sector is important, the manufacturing and mining sectors are particularly developed. Copper, coal, salt, marble and natural gas are extracted there. About 23% of the territory is suitable for breeding, sheep, birds, pigs, cattle and goats are raised there. Tourism in recent years has acquired an important role. Outdoor activities, sightseeing of churches and monasteries and naturalistic tourism seem to be the main tourist attractions of Armenia.
- Area: 29.800 kmq. (Arable 19%, Pastures 23%, Forests and Woodlands 14%, Uncultivated and Unproductive 44%)
- Population: 3.200.000 (2005 data) (Armenians 98%, Yazidis 1.3%, Russians 0.5%).
- State Capital: Yerevan.
- Languages: Official language is Armenian. Russian is also spoken.
- Religion: Armenian Christian 95%, Roman Catholic 3 %, Yazidism 2%.
- Currency: Dram (AMD)
- Time: UTC +4 hours (summer: UTC +5 hours).