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San Marino: an ancient independent republic

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The Republic of San Marino (Serenissima Republic of San Marino) is an independent state, made up of 9 municipalities (castles), located on the Italian peninsula, between Emilia Romagna and the Marches. The Serenissima Repubblica is not part of the European Union. This republic is one of only three countries in the world to be completely surrounded by another country.


The small country is located in the Apennine chain and its terrain is largely hilly. Mount Titano is the highest peak and reaches a height of 749 meters above sea level. The main sources of income in the economy of San Marino are tourism and the banking sector. The historic center of San Marino and Monte Titano became part of the UNESCO World Heritage List in 2008.

The Old Town is of medieval origin. San Marino managed for centuries to maintain its autonomy and independence despite the aims of annexation by the Papal States, whose territory completely surrounded the small republic.

This nation on the border between the Italian regions of Marche and Emilia Romagna is today one of the oldest republics in the world. Its constitution dates back to the 16th century. The official language of this small town is Italian. The country has managed to preserve its independence throughout the centuries.

Ancient medieval town built on three castles located on Mount Titano: the Rocca or Guaita, Montale and Fratta. During the fifteenth century the Republic was an ally of the Montefeltro. After the beginning of the 16th century it was occupied for a short period by Cesare Borgia. The Republic, after regaining its independence, managed to avoid the attempts of annexation by the Papal States.

The government website.

  • Area: 61 sq km
  • Population: 31,000. Sammarinese (85%), Italians (10%)
  • State Capital: San Marino
  • Language: The official language is Italian.
  • Religion: Catholicism.
  • Currency: Euro (EUR)
  • Time: UTC+1 (Summer: Daylight Saving Time UTC+2).



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