Qatar (Dawlat al-Qatar) is an emirate of the Arabian peninsula, which occupies the entire Qatar peninsula in the Persian Gulf. The country is bordered to the south by Saudi Arabia and the United Arab Emirates, and has as its capital the city of Doha, located along the east coast. The country became a British protectorate in 1916 and remained under the British sphere of influence until 1971 when Qatar became an independent state.
A DESERTIC COUNTRY WITH RICH OIL AND NATURAL GAS FIELDS
The territory of Qatar consists of a sandy and rocky desert plain, the highest point in the country is Qurayn Abu al Bawl (103 meters). The territory of the country completely occupies the peninsula of the same name that extends from south to north in the south-western part of the Persian Gulf, to the west a narrow stretch of sea separating the Qatar peninsula from the islands of Bahrain. Along the coast there are reefs, while inside, that is almost completely desert there are some small oases.
Before the discovery of oil, Qatar’s economy was based on fishing and pearls. Today, however, the economy is mainly based on the exploitation of oil and natural gas fields. Thanks to its deposits, Qatar is today one of the richest nations in the world. The country’s industry is also economically important. Also linked to the transformation of petroleum products. In particular, the refining of petroleum products has developed, there are petrochemical complexes, steel mills and cement factories. Other activities of some importance are fishing (dried fish, pearl oysters), breeding (sheep, camels, cattle), and agriculture (fruit, vegetables).
The climate of Qatar.
- Area: 11,437 sqkm. (Arable 1%, Pastures 5%, Forests and Woodlands 0%, Uncultivated and Unproductive 94%)
- Population: 2,800,000 (2017 data) Including immigrants (about 2,500,000 people).
- State Capital: Doha.
- Languages: The official language is Arabic.
- Religion: Muslim 100% (Sunni 90%, Shi’a 10%). Excluding immigrants (about 2,500,000 people).
- Currency: Riyal (QAR)
- Time: UTC +3 hours.