The Qatar (Dawlat al-Qatar) is an emirate in the Arabian Peninsula, which occupies the entire peninsula of Qatar in the Persian Gulf, the country is bordered to the south by Saudi Arabia and the United Arab Emirates, and has as its capital the city of Doha, located along the east coast. The country became a British protectorate in 1916 and remained under the British sphere of influence until 1971 when Qatar became an independent state.
The territory of Qatar consists of a sandy and rocky desert plain, the highest point in the country is Qurayn Abu al Bawl (103 meters). The territory of the country completely occupies the peninsula of the same name that extends from south to north in the south-western part of the Persian Gulf, to the west a narrow stretch of sea separating the Qatar peninsula from the islands of Bahrain. Along the coast there are reefs, while inside, that is almost completely desert there are some small oases.
The economy of Qatar is based mainly on the exploitation of oil and natural gas. Important is the industry of the country (refinery, petrochemical complex, steel, cement), other activities are fishing (dried fish, oysters), farming (sheep, camels, cattle), and agriculture (fruits, vegetables).
- Area: 11,437 sqkm. (Arable 1%, Pastures 5%, Forests and Woodlands 0%, Uncultivated and Unproductive 94%)
- Population: 841,000 (2007 data) Including immigrants (about 500,000 people).
- State Capital: Doha.
- Languages: The official language is Arabic.
- Religion: Muslim 100% (Sunni 90%, Shi’a 10%). Excluding immigrants (about 500,000 people).
- Currency: Riyal (QAR)
- Time: UTC +3 hours.