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Luxembourg: a small but rich Grand Duchy

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The Grand Duchy of Luxembourg (Grand-Duché de Luxembourg/Großherzogtum Luxemburg/Groussherzogtum Lëtzebuerg) is a constitutional monarchy, which is part of the European Union. The state is divided into the three districts Diekirch, Grevenmacher and Luxembourg, which in turn are divided into 12 cantons. The country has the city of Luxembourg asd its capital. The Grand Duchy is bordered to the north and west by Belgium, on the east by Germany and by France in the south.

The north of the country, called Ösling, has an area characterized by hills and low mountains, which are part of the Ardennes. In this area the highest point of Luxembourg, the Kneiff mountain (560 meters), is located.

The southern area of the Grand Duchy is called Gutland. It presents hills and plains with wide valleys intensively cultivated. The main river is the Sauer (Sûre), a tributary of the Moselle.

The Grand Duchy is home to many institutions and agencies of the European Union as well as being an important global financial center. The economic backbone of the Grand Duchy consists mainly of banking and insurance activities and steel industry. Agriculture and wine growing are also worth mentioning.

English text correction by Dietrich Köster. 


The history of Luxembourg begins around the tenth century with the construction of the Castle of Luxembourg which in later centuries was transformed into a state of great strategic value. In the fourteenth and fifteenth centuries, three members of the House of Luxembourg reigned as emperors of the Holy Roman Empire, but the dynasty came to an end in the fifteenth century due to lack of male heirs. The country was then controlled by the Bourbons, the Hapsburgs, the Hohenzollerns and the French.

After the Congress of Vienna, Luxembourg became a Grand Duchy within the German Confederation in personal union with the Netherlands, and was governed as a province of the Netherlands until 1839 when the country became independent. The Grand Duchy is one of the six founding countries of the European Economic Community which became the European Union.

  • Area: 2,586 sq km
  • Population: 460,000
  • State Capital: Luxembourg
  • Official Languages: French and German. National Language: Luxemburgish
  • Religion: Catholicism, Protestantism.
  • Currency: Euro (EUR)
  • Time: UTC+1 (Summer: Daylight Ssving Time UTC+2)



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