Lebanon (Al-Jumūhrīya al-Lubnānīya) is a presidential republic in the Middle East, which is bordered to the north and east by Syria, to the south by Israel, to the west is washed from the Mediterranean Sea. The most important city is the capital Beirut, other cities are Tripoli, Saida (Sidon), Sur (Tyre).
The Lebanese territory is predominantly mountainous along the coast is a narrow plain, while inland rise two parallel high mountain ranges those of Lebanon and Antilibanos Mountains, which are among them separate from the Beqaa valley, which is the northern part of the Rift Valley depression, which stretches from southern Turkey to Mozambique in Africa.
The chain of Lebanon has the highest mountain of Lebanon, Qurnat as Sawda (3,088 metres). The border with Syria is marked by Antilibanos mountains, where the highest peak is Mount Hermon (Jabal ash Shaykh, 2814 meters). The main rivers of Lebanon are the Nahr el Asi (Oronte) and the Litani (Leonte).
The economy of Lebanon has been severely damaged by the long civil war (1975-1990), now the main resources are agriculture (vines, citrus, fruits, olive, sesame, tobacco, bananas, vegetables, cereals) and the breeding livestock (goats, sheep and cattle). The industry is active in the fields of cement, petroleum refining, textiles (silk, cotton) and chemical.
- Area: 10,452 sqkm. (Arable 29%, Pastures 1%, Forests and Woodlands 8%, Uncultivated and Unproductive 62%)
- Population: 4,190,000 (2008 data)
- State Capital: Beirut.
- Languages: The official language is Arabic. The majority of Lebanese people speak French fluently.
- Religion: Muslim 59% (Shi’a 29%, Sunni 24%, Druze 5%), Christian 40% (Maronites 20%, Greek Orthodox 8%).
- Currency: Lebanese pound (LBP)
- Time: UTC +2 hours (Summer UTC +3 hours)
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