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Chad: spectacular desert landscapes and a large lake

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Chad (République du Tchad, Jumhūriyyat Tshād), is a presidential republic of Saharan Africa, whose capital is N’Djamena. The country is a former French colony that borders Libya to the north, Niger to the west, Nigeria and Cameroon to the south, Sudan to the east, Central African Republic to the south.


The north of the country is desert, here are the mountains of Tibesti where the highest mountain in the country rises, the Emi Koussi volcano (3,414 meters). In the north-eastern part there is the Ennedi plateau, always to the east, but further south is the Ouaddaï plateau.

Continuing south, the desert slowly gives way to the steppe, where pasture is practiced, and then to the savannah, which in the far south turns into a dense equatorial forest.

In the south-western area, on the border with Cameroon and Nigeria, there is Lake Chad, which gives its name to the country. The lake is in a phase of rapid withdrawal, and has the appearance of a marshy swamp, its depth does not exceed 4 meters. Until a few years ago it had an area of about 26,000 sq km which made it the fourth largest African lake. Today its size has reduced by 95% and the lake measures just 1,500 sq km. The main rivers of Chad are Chari and Logone, they pour their waters into Lake Chad.


Chad has a poor economy, one of the poorest in the world. In the central-southern part of the country breeding, agriculture and fishing are practiced. The main agricultural products grown are cotton and peanuts. In the country there are also oil, tin and rock salt deposits.

The climate of Chad.

The Presidency of the Republic of Chad.

  • Area: 1,284,000 sq km (2.5% arable land, 35% meadows and pastures, 25.2% forests, 37.3% uncultivated and unproductive)
  • Population: 14,000,000 (2018 update) Sara 27.7%, Arabs 12.3%, Mayo-Kebbi 11.5%, Kanem-Bornou 9%.
  • Capital: N’Djamena.
  • Languages: Official languages are French and Arabic.
  • Religion: Muslim 54%, Christian 34% (Catholic 20%, Protestant 14%), Animist 10%.
  • Currency: CFA franc (XAF)
  • Time zone: UTC +1 hour.

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