Home / Africa / Botswana / Botswana: wildlife, wetlands and drylands

Botswana: wildlife, wetlands and drylands

This post is also available in: Deutsch

Botswana (Republic of Botswana) is a presidential republic of Southern Africa. It used to be a British protectorate. The capital is Gaborone. The country is landlocked. It borders to the north and west with Namibia, to the north with Zambia, to the north-east with Zimbabwe and to the south-east and south with South Africa.


The country’s territory is largely formed by a steppe plateau which has an average height of around 1,000 meters. This plateau is occupied to the south-west by the Kalahari desert and crossed by the Okavango and Limpopo rivers.

The largest river of Botswana is the Okavango, which has its source in Angola and disperses its water in the so-called Okavango Delta, a vast wet area located in the north of the country. During floods the river continues its course under the name of Botletle river toward the salt basin of the Makgadikgadi Pan. In the north-west of the country is the highest mountain range of Botswana, the Tsodilo Hills, which reaches 1,489 meters.


Botswana has rich mineral deposits, especially diamonds, nickel, copper, coal, manganese and cobalt. Cattle breeding is of great importance, while agriculture is disadvantaged by the climate. Regarding tourism, Botswana is one of the most attractive destinations of the African continent. There are several national parks, which cover more than 17% of the country’s territory. Among these areas the Okavango Delta, the Kalahari Semi-Desert, the Chobe National Park and the Makgadikgadi Salt Pan are the most famous places.

The climate of Botswana.

English text correction by Dietrich Köster. 

  • Area: 581,730 sq km: Arable Land 0,7%, Pastures 44%, Forests and Bushland 45,5%, Uncultivated and Unproductive Land 9,8%
  • Population: 2,300,000 (as of 2019): Tswana 79%, Whites 7%, Kalanga 4%, Basarwa 3%, San and Herero.
  • State Capital: Gaborone.
  • Official Language: The official languages are English and Setswana.
  • Religion: Christians 70%, Indigenous Beliefs 30%.
  • Currency: Pula (BWP)
  • Time Zone: UTC+2 hours.

This post is also available in: Deutsch