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Germany: from Berlin to Bavaria, from the Black Forest to the Baltic Sea

The Federal Republic of Germany (Bundesrepublik Deutschland) is a democracy member of the European Union (EU). The Federal Republic of Germany is a federation of individual states. There are 16 “Bundesländer” which are federal states with their own government. The capital city is Berlin. Germany is the largest economy in the European Union.

Germany extends in central and northern Europe, at extreme north Germany is facing to the east on the Baltic Sea and to the west on the North Sea, while to the south where it borders with Switzerland and Austria, it is closed by the northern foothills of the Alps.

To the east the Oder river marks the border with Poland, while the Ore Mountains and the Bohemian Forest separates it from the Czech Republic. To the west Germany borders with France, from which it is separated by a for a segment of the border from the Rhine River, to the north the country is bordered by the states of the so-called Benelux ie with Luxembourg, Belgium and the Netherlands.

Germany has many urban centers of great importance, among them at the first place is the capital Berlin, located in the north-east of the country, to the south is Munich the capital of Bavaria, while to the north is Hamburg. The Rhine valley includes an extensive conurbation, the Ruhr, formed by a combination of several cities, including Cologne, Bonn, Dusseldorf, Dortmund and Essen. Other major cities include Frankfurt, Stuttgart, Hannover, Nuremberg, Bremen, Leipzig and Dresden.

The German territory consists of a large lowlands, a central area formed by low mountains, the so-called central mountains (Mittelgebirge), and the mountains of the Bavarian Alps where is the highest mountain in Germany, the Zugspitze, 2,962 meters.

Along the northern coast, both the North Sea and on the Baltic Sea, are the estuaries of major rivers flowing through Germany from south to north, the most important are the Oder, which flows into the Baltic Sea, the Elbe, Weser and Ems that flow over the North Sea.

The Rhine, navigable for a long stretch, is the most important river in the country, it crosses the most industrialized and populated area of Germany. The Danube has its sources in Germany it flows through Bavaria and then continued its course to the Black Sea

  • Area: 357,030 sqkm
  • Population: 82,530,000 (minorities of turks, italians, serbs, poles, greeks, spaniards, austrians)
  • State Capital: Berlin
  • Language: German is the official language..
  • Religion: Protestant 42,8 %, Roman Catholic 32,6 %, Islam 3 %, Hebrew 0,1 %, others 22,4 %
  • Money: Euro
  • Time: Central European time (UTC +1). Clocks go forward in spring and back in autumn. The switch to summer time (forward one hour) happens on the last Sunday in March (Summer Daylight saving time UTC+2). Winter time (back one hour) starts on the last Sunday in October.

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