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Afghanistan: mountains and ancient traditions

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Afghanistan (Da Afghānestān Jomhūriyāt) is an Islamic presidential republic of Central Asia, with the capital Kabul. The country is bordered to the north with Turkmenistan, Uzbekistan and Tajikistan, to the west with Iran, to the south and east with Pakistan, to the north-east with China.

Afghanistan administratively includes 34 provinces (Badakhshan, Badghis, Baghlan, Balkh, Bamiyan, Daykondi, Farah, Fariab, Ghazni, Ghor, Helmand, Herat, Jozjan, Kabul, Kandahar, Kapisa, Khost Province, Konar, Kunduz, Laghman, Logar, Nangarhar, Nimroz, Nuristan, Paktia, Paktika, Panjshir, Parwan, Samangan, Sar-e Pol, Takhar, Uruzgan, Wardak, Zabul).


The country’s capital is Kabul, other important cities are Kandahar, Herat and Mazar-e Sharif. The Afghan territory is mainly mountainous, characterized by the Hindu Kush mountain range that crosses the country in the central-northern section in an east-west direction. In the far north, Hindu Kush meets the chains of Pamir and Karakoram. Mount Nowshak (7,485 meters), in the Hindu Kush range, is the highest mountain in the country.

Towards the south-west, the Hindu Kush chain branches out in numerous secondary massifs, among them the Koh-i-Baba chain which exceeds 5,000 meters in height. The southern part of Afghanistan is made up of vast desert areas such as the Rigestan plateau and the Sistan depression, an endorheic basin where the waters of the Helmand, Khash and Farah rivers flow. The country is crossed by 4 main rivers, Amudarya, which flows along the border with Tajikistan. The other rivers are Harirud, Kabul and Helmand.

The Afghan economy, among the poorest in the world, is based on breeding. There are sheep (karakul sheep), goats and cattle. Agriculture is poor, wheat, barley, rice, corn, fruit (apples, oranges, peaches, grapes), cotton, flax, sugar beet, sesame, potatoes are grown. The subsoil resources produce gold, lead, copper, natural gas, lapis lazuli, iron, oil. Among the industrial activities, the most important are those related to the transformation of agricultural products and the processing of fabrics.

Afghanistan tourist attractions: what to see.

  • Area: 652,225 sqkm. (Arable 12%, Pastures 46%, Forests and Woodlands 3%, Uncultivated and Unproductive 39%).
  • Population: 31,900,000 (2007 data) (Pashtun 42%, Tajik 27%, Hazara 9%, Uzbek 9%, Aimak 4% , Turkmen 3%, Baloch 2%).
  • State Capital: Kabul.
  • Languages: The official languages are Pashto and Persian (Dari).
  • Religion: Muslim 99% (Sunni 84%, Shi’a 15%).
  • Currency: Afghani (AFN)
  • Time: UTC +4,30 hours.



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